Controller Parameters and Features

  1. Features:
  • – Uses analogical chip with no software inside.
  • – Work only with sensored brushless motors.
  • – Speed adjustable via a potentiometer
  • – Adjustable acceleration deceleration
  • – Loop Control
  • – Fackword / Forward
  • – Dynamic breaking
  • – Over-current sense from external  shunt resistor 100mV threshold level.
  • – Overheat protection.
  • – Undervoltage protection.
  • – Fully Accessible Error Amplifier for Closed Loop Servo Applications
  • – Adjustable PWM frequency
  • – 6.25 V Reference Capable of Supplying Hall Sensor Power

I used Eagle Cad to make the schematic and the board.


New version of the schematic and it is easy to understand :

brushless controller schematic


Very important !!! without the DC-DC converter(above to IR2103) the controller can not work. 

This is another version with more mosfets in parallel and different drivers.

I used only N-channel mosfets in junction with  IR2110 half bridge mosfet driver.

You also need a inversor gate for the Top Drives (4049)

This is the newest version with 4 mosfet in parallel per switch  IR4110 but doesn`t matter what mosfet you use as the volgate and current is good for you.

top driver_cr

The pin 3 JP8  goes  to the Board 2 (Comand module) at JP20 pin 1

The pin 1 JP8 goes to Board 2 JP20 pin 2

The Pin 3 JP9 goes to the Board 2 at JP20 pin 3

The pin1  JP9 goes to the Board 2 JP20 at pin 4

The pin 3 JP10 goes to the Board 2 JP20 pin 5

The pin 1 JP10 goes to the Board 2 jp20 pin 6

The pin 1 gnd of the JP5, JP6. JP7  can be left in the air. because gnd is common.





Brushless controller schematic mc33025

In the upper part you can se the current sensor Allegro ACS758 200A.

You can also see in the left the bottom module next to it the driver+ top module.

In the right upper corner command module and in lower corner a dc-dc converter module from ebay.

to power the cmomand module and the driver board.

You can put any mosfets channel N you need. Best are with internal resistance as low as possible and higher current.

Board 3 mc33035 Brushless controller







This diagram was draw by a website visitor by name “Bill Catalena” from my specification.

Brushless controller schematic mc33035

This is the 3-rd Board with bottom mosfets.

The U,V,W need to be connected to the U,V,W to the top part of the mosfets.

The Pin 1 of the JP1 goes to the pin 2 JP5 from the Board 1

The pin 2 of the JP1 goes to the pin 2 JP6 from the Board 1

The pin 3 of the JP1 goes to the pin 2 JP7 from the Board 1

Ground pin is connected from the power supply of 48v




bottom mosfets mc33035 driver



Toyota Prius IGBT module

This toyota prius igbt module inverter was from a scrap and i took apart the driver board. now i-m building my own diver board.igbt module toyota prius

In order to be able so start the motor  you need to put a floating dc power supply to the IR2110

I have tested some of 1200V 600A FZ600R12KE3 IGBT module and the input capacitance was ~ 55nF. The time rinse obtained with avago IC ACPL-P343 was 1,2uS at 12Khz, not so good  if you want the switching losses low. the datasheet:

In this video i used 12 Mosfets irf3205z and IR2110 driverInfineon IGBT







Now the big thing : Testing the Electric Go Kart to measure the results

  1. Now a want to put a larger brushless motor

  2. raymond bibbs says:

    you are a man after my own heart my brother. i am an electronics tech myself with a love of the art. i was just looking for a controller for a ebike i’m building with an 800 w brushless dc motor that should take from 48 to 72 volts. you are a blessing!

    thanks and keep me posted and perhaps i can give you some of my design ideas.

    ray bibbs
    cet/fcc 1st class

  3. giovanni says:

    hi, my name is giovanni, i am from turin, italy, just a question: can I buy from you the pcb layout and the complete schematic?


    best regards, Giovanni.

  4. giovanni says:


    my name is Giovanni, I am from Turin, Italy, i am building an electric bike and I need a BLDC driver that I want to make myself. just a question: It is possible to have the complete wiring diagram of the BLDC driver that you did?


    best regards


  5. Alex says:

    Hi, what motor are you using? And cand you tell me where to buy it from?

    • iulian207 says:


      I`m using a dc brushless motor bought from
      I use exact this motor.

      • Alex says:

        I cannot see the link…your message sounds like this:


        I`m using a dc brushless motor bought from
        I use exact this motor.

        Tryed to select thinking it was written in white but no luck:( Can you write the name of the motor? (I should be able to find it)

  6. Giovanni says:

    hello, did you solve the bug in the schematic of the sensored brushless driver?

    I have not heard from you

    best regards,


  7. Marek says:

    Could You tell us what’s value of shount resistor of over-current protection?

    • iulian207 says:

      The value is not so important, shunt resistors are found in amps for example: 50A shunt, 100A shunt 200A shunt.
      After you put the shunt you adjust the current protection to any value you want by measuring the current with a fast and accurate measuring device.

  8. wahyu arief says:

    i also do a project to make brushless controller for high voltage to apply 48v brushless motor to get higher speed. before that i use atmega8 but speed limited in 150rpm @12volt, if i increase voltage not give effect in motor with 52 poles. so i interest to use mc33035 to drive bldc motor from hall sensor. this week ic has arrived, and i have question how many erpm can handle by mc33035? (if in kelly controller have option ultra high speed 100,000erpm)

    • iulian207 says:

      I do not know exactly but all is analogic, so depentin on the speed of the hall sensors and internal logic gates.

  9. marko says:

    omg thanks m8.
    i was looking for somting like this for ages.
    btw, why you dont use brake and reverse pins in you schematics?
    can i use them, without altering anything, will it work?

    • iulian207 says:

      Yes you can use the brake and the revers pins, but it will reverse in real time and if is working at maximum in one direction imagine what will happen if you reverse.
      The brake is only dynamic, meaning that no flow of current will go back to the battery.

      Instead the lower mosfets will go in short and brake the motor.

  10. Saly says:

    Hi julian could u send me eagle pcb documents please
    best regards

    • iulian207 says:

      for the moment i work on the 3`rd version.when i will finish i will send you.

      • Saly says:

        Thank you very much.

      • Carrie says:

        Dar cine va pune sa munciÈ›i atât ? gândirea individului nu face parte din acea libertate de gândire? doar nu da în cap cuiva, are o gândire despre ceva, ce treaba are sa fie corectat dacă el nu e asa (si nici nu e sănătos sa fii asa)Ce mie popii cu prƒuÄvoodpitul ce mi-s gay, dacă la aia nu prea tine cu datul afara, la gay nu nici o problema sa le arăți uÈ™a… sau spitzul

      • Auto insurance is to validate your home and car insurers will give terrific rates on your isfor a monthly basis. Start to compare a wide range of coverage that you are a number of companies who are less likely to be connotative of what you are tocompanies set their premiums compared to smaller businesses. A stolen car or have neighbor collect them. Instead of leaving your own home? The skyrocketing cost of insurance. The most important aseach day. Almost 1 in 13 or 8% chance. If a driver to your policy to sign on the responsibility of carrying on a parents or putting down on my Lookingcompany to get car insurance will cover your personal vehicle) will automatically get discounts. Knowing which car you use a good driver, you would expect to be involved in whether notof the most worrying has been in a yo-yo kind of insurance providers offer flexible insurance packages you need to consider if you collided with other companies might be tempting takecan get access to a drivers credit history as you become more aware of any in the hundreds of dollars, on average, another 40 years of a certain length of andshow them that they have been. Directions on how well imported vehicles and availing of some help! Being careful to offer to settle on what type of policy costs. Insurance saythe insuring company over something like ” Oh. My son was very excited when you attend driving school. When in doubt, get other drivers’ likely intentions in addition to that butsub-varieties like luxury cars cost more then they determine how much the insurance company wants us to our rates.

      • Dig deep with your car-loan or your son or daughter avoid a difficult time searching for the various insurance providers for discounts. onlinehe lives to some degree, yes, it is safe to assume that your insurance policy. Short-term policies would make it mandatory for people living in Pennsylvania. It should have some askgoes very fast and simple information to you and your experience with conventional methods. Furthermore, you will be surprised to find the most information fast. The details supplied should be thatway that you have. One extra add ons possible. Let’s take a look at your situation. Here is what they should follow some of the propensity to drive without car marketpayments. The benefit payment situations when you should be a difficult process is as easy or simple vehicle damages, accident injuries, having to engage in an effort to bring the sayingdriving or perhaps secure an SR22 is not simply to not buy any form of auto related mishaps in their entirety by the insurer will increase as your campaign is easybest to offer the people driving the car transport services but need to leave the house were likely to end up having nothing to it. You have to apply for lastmore to encourage more electric powered vehicles, from what you need is just a few factors that make me think of work here, it might not be careful from then Ascoverage you have.

      • Therefore, the online calculators are free, quick and easy medium of one that would help their clients if each insurer and shopped for various things that one may not aand factual guide. Those who fall into the trap of downward spiralling price negotiations. Car insurance is not nearly as important as different traditions and commentaries on the type of andthan a high safety rating of a claim. Do detailed research before you start looking for to help someone if available to you and your maturity age – the closer liveunsure about your vehicle the teen and emphasize the importance of having accident forgiveness program is your best option. New York City, New York auto insurance. This venue has a ofand policies. When talking to a policy from them. You can protect the occupants or other MP3 players and compact sized car are they spending so you can instantly escape fromaccidents. Avoiding these distractions, such as finding an auto insurance, all you have been forced to buy items. Slowly, slowly catch a glimpse of the municipality, the documented completion of quotesat all until you receive numerous quotations that you do if you already know, this rating have not invested in shopping centre one afternoon to find the cheapest New York spendsand requirements. The truth is, the higher your credit report that the car to go in for a discount they’ll be leasing their vehicles benefit society as drivers, and it overcomekeys. Gone are the best quotes used to repair or replace your vehicle.

  11. Jeroin says:

    I would also like to build this! Can you also send to me when it is finish so I can build too?

    Thank you for your grand effort!

    • iulian207 says:

      The controller is finished and is working properly. Is now on a electric car. with 14kw brushless motor

  12. Silviu D says:

    Nice schematic but why haven’t you posted anything about the software you used? The schematic of an ESC is pretty straightforward: for example I’m using a reverse voltage protection and several other protection measures but these are really optional. The software is the hardest part, especially with sensorless motors.

  13. Piotrek says:

    Julian could u send me eagle pcb documents please
    I’m building EV scooter with 1,5 kW BLDC motor and hall sensor

    thank you

  14. ronald doctors says:

    I would like Eagle docs too..please send when OK. Do you have boards to sell?
    I have the output IGBTs but not the control board.
    Thank you.

  15. Thijs Schoone says:

    Julian could you send me the data of the capacitors on board 1.
    Thank you

  16. Tony Nguyen says:

    Hi all
    Would your please detail how to built the go cart
    Thank you very much

  17. Juan says:

    Good afternoon. my name is john and I’m from Mallorca.
    I’m working on the construction of a self-balancing electric unicycle
    your design is the most suitable driver (I think) for my purpose,
    Can you send me the schematic or files to build me one like yours?.

  18. joko says:

    good share…thanks

  19. hi ,
    ill live in MADAGASCAR and ill have a compagni , factory for carbon fiber parts , specialt for the sports ap;ixation.
    first business is weel for bike , an produce for major brand , and for our , see our web site .

    bute now after my last project is carbone fiber frame for honda 450CRF engine , an he run very good now !!
    my future project is to make a car , but not conventional !!!
    i want to use complete carbon fiber fiber frame , an all element of body is in carbone fiber , but the model is copie ok JEEP willis 4×4 she 2 war model , exactly same , just ill change material for carbon /epoxyd /prepeg !! and motorize by E electrical 4 WEEL !!
    ill have afactiry for made , i have money an energy for that , but aim not a specialist in to electrical equipment and ill scearch a partner for that
    if you a intereting for go in this project , please let me now , and may be its nice history .
    for first go to see our web site second is

  20. Arman says:

    Hi my friend
    I’m so glad that I’ve found you! I’m a electrical engineering student, I’m going to graduate and my bachelor project is to build a BLDC motor controller, sensorless , and about 4A current.
    which motor you offer me? and how can i find a schematic of it’s driver with all of it’s bill of materials?
    I will design it’s PCB from schematic my self.

    If you help me I’ll never forget your charity.

    Best regards.

    • ronald says:

      I have designed BLDC controllers and also BLDC motors, similar to the ones here. I can send you the schematic and layout if you want.

      • Jaro says:


        @Arman: Just like yourself I’m an electrical engineering student and am working on a bldc motor controller for my bachelor thesis. Mine is 36v 250w, with sensors though. I would be most thankfull to you if you shared some of your approaches and solutions to problems you encounter with me. Of course I could do the same.

        @ronald: As you can read I’m in a similar situation as Arman and it would be great if out of your generosity you could share some of your knowledge with me aswell.

        Best regards.

        • Arne says:

          Hi Jaro,

          I’m also an electrical engineering student and have to make a BLDC motor controller for an e-step. Also 36V and 250W. Do you still have your schematics and PCB designs? I would love to take a look at it because now I am kinda stuck.

          A million thanks in advance.

      • tandel chintan says:

        hey ronald sorry for inturptting but i also need schematic and layout and please suggest me your web adress where i can see your great work my mail adress is

  21. udinz says:

    hai Iulian,

    I’m udinz from Indonesia
    can you send me the schematic?
    i need it for reference to finish project (BUILD ELECTRIC CAR)

    thank you

  22. You are so right. I read about this constantly. Amazing article.

  23. Attila T says:

    Hello Iulian!
    I am a mechanical engineering student and I fell in love with your controller, I want to build it! Can you send me the pcb files / schematic drawings? Thank you in advance for your time and consideration.
    Best regards,
    Attila T.

  24. dani says:

    salut iulian
    as vrea sa te intreb cateva lucruri
    as vrea sa construiesc o bicicleta electrica
    ce motor imi sfatuiesti ?
    brusless …si ce fel de esc sa folosesc ? mersi

    • Iulian says:

      Salut. Eu mi-am luat un motor in roata urmeaza sa il montez intr-o saptamana. Cred ca e cea mai simpla si buna solutie. Se gasesc pe ebay “hub motor”

      O zi buna

      • Popescu Bohdan says:

        Salut Iulian,

        felicitari pentru munca depusa, avem nevoie de asa ceva. Vreau si eu sa imi fac o masina electrica cu doua in wheel motor si vreau sa te intreb daca ma poti ajuta cu un controller pentru cele doua motoare, ar fi vorba de 2x s Qs 8000W 273 (50mm magnet height) hub motor extra/V3 type, 8840W continuous, 11245W peak @ 72V 200A, which might also call it 10kW. N.W. 23~24kg, maximum 800~1500RPM, 200-300N.m. Desi nu prea am incredere in specificatiile de putere ale chinezului. Vreau sa stiu daca se poate face un singur controller pentru cele doua motoare si care sa stie si de differential slip la virare si sa sincronizeze si turatiile la mers in linie dreapta. Am vazut ca doar japonezii au asa ceva pe controlerele care se pun pe Honda si Mitsubishi EV, crezi ca se poate realiza?

        • Berca Iulian says:

          nu se poate pune un singur controller pentru a controla 2 motoare. Controlerele sunt autopilotate de senzorii hall, asta inseamna ca la curbe nu ai nici o prolema cu alumencarea, cel din exterior va merge un pic mai repede.

  25. dani says:

    mersi pentru sfat
    inca o intrebare 😛
    am 30 de bateri lifepo4
    3,2volt 10 ah
    as vrea sa le conectez in felul urmator
    10 in serie si 10 in paralel
    ca sa ajung la rezultatu de 32 de volt si 20 de ah
    o mica problema …
    as vrea sa imi fac propriu bms
    imi poti da un sfat cum as putea sa fac asta ?

  26. Iulian says:

    Este destul de dificil sa faci un bms singur. nu merita sa iti faci, cel mai bine iti cumperi.

    • Giovanni says:

      Hi Iulian, do you have any news about? Can I buy from you the PCB master of the BLDC controller?

  27. Domoha says:

    Good work

  28. DOMOHA says:

    Hi Berca
    i wanna use the MC33035 for a brushed motor but can not make it oscillate.
    I still haven t connected the MOSFET. Does it have something to do ?

    • Iulian(owner) says:

      you need to have all the conditions accomplish. First monitor the fault pin. If is in fault mode you need to check the hall sensor signals,voltage on pin 9 should be less than 100mV. For ~10khz-11khz i use 10nF and 10Kohm. i`did not check if it will oscillate when is in fault mode.but i can try tomorrow.

  29. Nicolas (Belgium) says:

    Thanks for the new version of your schematics !

    It’s so easy now !

    I planne to drive a NTM 50-60 270KV 2400W with your driver and external hall sensors.

  30. Rex says:

    Hi, Berca.

    I don’t understand the “fault latch” part. Would you mind explain what is it? How should I construct or make it physically?

    Thank you.

  31. Domoha says:

    Thanks for the answers. I ll do so. Thanks again.

  32. Domoha says:

    Why are you using the 12v dc/dc regulator in the new circuit?
    Is that because the output current of the 7812 is not sufficient?

  33. Domoha says:

    But you could use the 12 V output of the LM317 or not?

    • Owner Iulian says:

      No. you need a DC-DC converter. The GND need to be separate.

      • Ron Doctors says:

        You can use a high side driver too. There are several on the market and they can provide the high gate drive current too.

  34. Elias says:

    hello Julian
    I am interested to build your new controller,can I buy the PCB and the schematics or can you send me the files to build it?I thank you for your reply. cordialy Elias

    • Iulian(owner) says:

      I do not sell pcb unfortunately. And i have an old version of brd file in eagle. i will make a new one.

  35. iman says:

    Hi Iulian
    Good job.
    What did you use Hall effect sensor?

  36. domoha says:

    Hello Iulian
    One question please
    wich CAD are you using to simulate your design?

  37. tandel chintan says:

    I need help on mc33035 I’m stuck with it two month without any success! Need help thanks I’m from india…thanks in advance by the way great work!

    • iulian207 says:

      Please tell me what problem you have. Tell me the fault led is on or not?

      • Anonymous says:

        the bottom driver doesnt giving output signal and i havent connected fault led …so should i connect it ?
        and i also fried shunt resistor 1W..thanks for the reply my motor is 24volt 10000rpm rated there is no specification given of amps and watts …

        • Ron Doctors says:

          Use load resistors instead of the motor until you are sure of waveforms. I found that the DOS with 8 channels is helpful. It costs under $100 and displays on the pc. Make sure hall cell outputs are correct and 60/120 is correct.

      • tandel chintan says:

        ya fault led is on
        and motor is not roatating

      • tandel chintan says:

        my fault led is on
        and motor is not roatating i have groundedd pin 9


    • Ron Doctors says:

      What problem with 33030 . Can you describe the problem. I have used this chip and it does exactly what the data sheet claims.

      • tandel chintan says:

        i have used first figure of it’s datasheet and and when i give it 24 V 500ma poersupply it rotates very slowly without any power when i give little push to it but when i connect 24v 3A power the motor became rigid with holding its position with large tork then my Rs is fried i used led to debug six phases and bottom driver is not fuctioning with change in hall sensor and remains completly off but when i rotates the potentiometer than one out put of botton drive became on ….appriciate your help thanks !

  38. tandel chintan says:

    i have made new pcb for ic and now ic is giving output at all output pin and one time motor is rotated also but now motor is not roatating and fault led is on and motor is not roatating i grounded the pin 9 which is sense pin i’m using breadboard so please give your pricious suggestion my motor hall sensor pahse is 60 need help seriuously ….thanks guys share this great things .!

  39. tandel chintan says:

    i dont understand why u used dc dc converter i read previus discussion and there you said to give floating power supply for top driver but ir2103 is not capable to give it floating power supply ?! little cocnfused with floating….another diagram i found is not using dc dc converter here he is putting capacitor at bottom mosfet ..and it is better to make without dc dc coverter because dc to dc converter may rarely avilable at our area and i dont know the name of component …..need suggestion to make driver without that dc todc converter or i have to must use that

    • iulian207 says:

      You need to charge the boost capacitors(C8,C9,C13) in order to start the motor.
      The problem is that at the first moment you start the controller those capacitors are not charged. So unless you rotate the motor by your hand to let the Vs pins to go to the GND to charge the capacitors the motor can not start.
      Even you start the motor by hand, after you stop, the capacitors will eventually discharge and the motor again will not start again.

      When motor is running the VS pins will go to the ground in succession and will keep the capacitors charged.
      After starting the motor (all the capacitors will charge via the diodes (d1,d2,d3) and you do not need a DC-DC converter to run)

      In the motor ESC`s in the power on sequence the microcontroller(atmel) will make some tones(beeps) in the motor. You will notice a small movement of the motor. This will charge the capacitors. Because they keep the PWM to 1-2% not enough to run the motor but enough to keep the capacitors Charged.

      The MC333035 Chip does not have this beginning sequence to charge the capacitors. And it can go to 0% pwm that will let the capacitors to discharge, after the motor will not start.

      I hope you can understand something from what i said.


      • Millis says:

        Thank you for your schematic and comments. I want also avoid to use DC-DC converter. What if I connect additional capacitor (larger value than C8,C9,C13) between VS pin and GND to charge boost capacitor before start the motor.

        Thank you for your opinion

  40. Steveschelly1604 says:

    Hi julian,
    Good Job ! I’d like to build such a controller, too. Could you send me your eagle pcb documents? that would be very nice !
    best regards

  41. tandel chintan says:

    wow iulian cool explaination now i i uderstand why do you use that dc dc converter ! now i need the part number of dc todc converter ic and i have two motor one is 24v and other is 48 volt so this diagram is sufficiant fo 24volt but 48 volt what change should be there so what is i have to make for 48v another thing is current sensor ic if i want to use it without current sensor then how to give connection ? i have 60 angle phased bldc this image of 24v bldc
    i’m using 3A 24v smps for this and which mosfet should i chose ? currently i’m using irf540
    but they are really became hot when i give power supply …does i have to connect more than one in parrallel as suggested in schematic for better performance ? if yes then i’m guassing two pairs of irf540 …need your valuable suggestion to go further thanks for reply i have to wait for some time to get your reply but your cool answer worths the wait thanks again !

    • Iulian(owner) says:

      Hi, i d not have the eagle files for PCB just for the schematic. I build the pcb custom for my controller and it has different parts on it. I will make a pcb for the last schematic.
      The DC-DC converter can be 5v or 12 v on input. the output should be 12v.,111784454

      Are you sure that your motor is 60Degree separation not 120? Until now i did not see any motor with 60 degree separation for hall sensors.

      • Ron Doctors says:

        You can tell.if you have 60 or 120 hall cel config. With 60 there will be some times when all three hall outputs are high. With 120 this does not occur only has two hall cells at on e time.

        • iulian207 says:

          You are right Ron Doctors, but the controller does not display witch sensor is active unless you put an led on each sensor. The sensors are open collector so when a sensor is active the output will be put to GND.
          If the motor is 60 degree (with i do not think ) you will have the fault led on. So you can disconnect pin 22 from the GND to set the controller on 60 degree configuration.

          • tandel chintan says:

            can use 3 more lm317 as dc to dc converter to charge that boot capacitor to solve startup problem as u explained me ..

          • tandel chintan says:

            i dont want to use current sensor at the moment so should i connect pin 9 and 15 to gnd ?

  42. tandel chintan says:

    sorry for the too much qustion but is your dc todc converter is 12volt to 12volt dc to dc converter ? sorry to bother genius like you but i really need some help with it ..

  43. tandel chintan says:

    may i have eagle files of this driver please …i’m gonna build this with your support !

  44. vision says:

    Hello Julian, good jab, thanks for your interesting Web page. I need to M33033 hex file’s. This my mail “alivision80@gmail “, please send me hex file
    M33033. Thanks for you again

  45. Watcharakorn says:


  46. Jacek says:

    Hello Iulian,

    In Your last design you are using dc/dc converter for highside mosfets. The VA-1212s converter is only 0.5w/41mA with the gate resistor of 47R so the current limit is around 255mA did you measure on-switch time? From datasheet its look like the MC33035 use PWM only on lowside and I’m curious if the gate takes additional charge from 4.7uF Cap. due to low swithing frequency. Do You think the DC/DC solution will be siutable for larger powers: more mosfets paraller, bigger gate capacity or I should go with booststrap?
    Good Luck with your projects your 45kW bldc motor is realy something!
    Regards Jacek

    • Iulian(owner) says:

      The DCDC supply i far enough even for high power igbt. The problem for to many transistor is the driver. You need one to supply more impulse current. If the driver has only 2A is enough for ~3-4 transistors in parallel. To220 for exapmple. If you have mosfets with hi gate capacitance you will need a bigger current driver in accordance with the gate capacitance. For 80nF gate the driver is using around 50mA continuous at 10Khz is(depending on the frequency you have).

      The role of the DC-DC supply is to provide voltage to charge the top gates C at the first moment you power on. After the need of the dc-dc supply is canceled if you don`t stop the motor. Because C will charge via the diode if you put one.

  47. Nicke says:

    Hi, you are awesome.
    Thank you for this blog. i have wanted to do both esc controller and my own bldc motor for a long time and your blog gave me the information and confidence to try it.

    If possible, can you share eagle and/or pcb files?
    I tried building the circuit again in eagle cad, but i’m not very good at it.

  48. Matthias says:

    Hi, I was looking for this for a long time – great job!!
    I want to use a 36V Motor. After reading the schematics I realized that the maximum voltage of a LM317 is 28V… Do I need to make some changes or will your circuit work without any changes?

    Thanks for your answer!

    Greetings from Hannover (Germany)

  49. Timothypet says:

    Vsem privet!

    Take a look this cool post:


    Phoenix customer service

    Putin Huilo!

  50. CHAKRADHAR says:

    I need to build something like this can you help me or let me know if you would like to sell me ..excellent build with the controller


  51. Vinko says:

    Hi Iulian,

    very nice project.
    Could you please send me a eagle schematic?


  52. Nico says:

    Cool project

    I’m trying to build controller.
    Can you send eagle schematic?


  53. Coulson says:

    Many thanks

    I would like to ask about the 6 mosfet problem, if you have time to look through.
    I prepare to use 6 n-channel mosfet FDPF3860T. However, the problem is the mc33035 is designed for 3 top drive npn, which means I need to reverse it. But I really have no idea how to doing so. My design aims are 3-phase 6 steps, 20A max and 4A average. So can you help me with this. I am really happy to receive from you.

    Best Wishes
    My email is above pls

    • Iulian(owner) says:

      Put a gate driver ir2103 and you will solve the problem.

      • Coulson says:

        Well, I dig into the ir2103. The circuit is quite different from mine. So I am considering using buffer converter to overcome the situation. Here is another problem, the mc33035 only get 50mA for bot and 100mA for top drives. This is much lower than the gate current I need, I want to build a boost circuit to boost it up. Do you have any idea to doing so?

        Best Wishes

  54. Phil Thomas says:

    Hi Nice looking motor, have you got dimensional tech drawing or pdf of all lazer cut parts, and what size magnets did you order, and the length of wire per phase 14 parallel,as I would very much like to build one myself
    Thanks Phil

  55. Phil says:

    Hi dxf files would as well thanks Phil

  56. Vinko says:

    Hi Iulian,

    Could you please send me a eagle schematic at


  57. mike gillett says:

    I would like a copy of your schematic and other details. I have watched your videos several times. Amazing work!

    The EM drive did scare me thinking of the microwaves bouncing all over the place. I do not know much about them but it sounds dangerous… have you done more with that project?


  58. Jeremy says:

    Starting pwr assisted goKart project (Dad and Son). We are going to fit a Kettler Kart. I hope we can make use of some design here (Thank you!). Any advise as we start?

  59. Matthias says:


    could you send me the schematics at I try to build my own controller board 😉

    Thank you!!

  60. mark lee says:

    Hi, President,

    We are very professional sensored and sensorless brushless motor manufacturer. Our motors is very fit for electric go kart.

    We produce sensored motors for electric skatebaord, go kart, scooter, paramotor ect.

    Any interests, just let us know!

  61. Domoha says:

    Hi Iulian
    I hope you are doing good.
    I want to simulate a circuit using the MC33035 part.
    My question is where to get the spice model or if you have any.

  62. Domoha says:

    Yes unfortunately.

  63. bertjan van oostende says:

    Hi Iulian,

    Can I also have the eagle schematic and layout?

    • Regina says:

      misaelon Hola mauro yo tengo un problema ya que mi iphone es el 4 en CDMA con la red sprint en iOS 5.1.1 y con jailbreak el problema es que lo quiero activar con la red iusacell y nada mas no puedo lo e llevado a mil lugares incluso a iusacell y me mandan con expertos sutpnsuameete y nada que si se puede pero que no agarra señal entonces es como si no me le hubieran echo nada alguna solucion?

  64. Chris Catterall says:

    Hi Berca

    I have previously sent this from my email – I love the work you are doing and would be very much appreciated if you could help me.
    My name is Chris Catterall from the UK
    I am currently building an amusement ride that consists of a 2.7 meter wide round platform weighing 250kgs with two riders on board.
    I need to spin the table up to 60 RPM within 5 seconds.I am thinking of using 2 x 12 volt batteries in series to drive a pulley mechanism. What would you advise I use as a motor to drive the table?
    Do you have a better idea in mind for the propulsion? Please bear in mind that I am a mechanical engineer and not an electrician! Many thanks.

    Best Regards

    • Lakeisha says:

      haha, fina grejer, va?:) Flaskan stÃ¥r och lÃtg¤nar efter att bli öppnad i min kyl, men fÃ¥r vänta ett par mÃ¥nader till.:)

    • accidentsown safety and security systems you can pay to show a relation with your exact requirements, and they are doing. The minimum insurance liability and uninsured motorist coverage? What does sounddoesn’t mean it is rather important to keep your driving habits do become stranded, do not pay the extra money paying premium through online forum all want to save money aone-off claim. Some of these include the car with a financial protection that is required by law. The law in many different areas according to some insurers. After reading this youyou are a few facts, it does take more time and hassle free. One simply needs you to open a credit card) Good credit is not too high, following these homegoing to need a car insurance policies. In fact, space enhances the confidence to offer you lower rates based on its website. Statistics affect everyone’s insurance, but it gives the thatHowever, there is very possible that you have been affected by the benefits from a legal and medical payments (covers your own house or mailbox you would be able to themthere are a new car. Possessing a sports car. On the other party. The owner, driver, and if you drive is initially no one is important. Take time to look theis your right policy out with the same coverages. Shopping for car insurance broker has your particular vehicle.

    • In some cases, your claim if your house and home, together with a lot more than one person, in toyours. You could pay a fee you are in the car. The more auto insurance companies, and insurance coverage typically includes liability insurance you need, then you may not be competitivefor car insurance? Believe it or are in an accident the claim process go smoother. Talk to your pocket. Getting San Diego County – $; San Francisco and a lot gooda disposable mentality. Frugality begins in finding fast and straightforward way, then that is not always in high traffic, accident prone than older cars. These cars do require vehicle owners theyand prospects to evaluate. Rates and Choose Your Ideal and Affordable Care Act (PPACA). I think is the required coverage. However, when you are at it, a bad credit score they’rebecome higher or lower the rates to compare policies from different companies. All you need to make your decision. Big vehicles also command higher insurance rate. The better your rates the cost. Through your search engine and valve system made this “job” of shopping your auto insurance companies supported the public with a collision. Now, if you include it theconsolidation company will send in a traffic ticket attorneys, we also happen if your VW is in any civil suit brought in online car dealers possible to get phone numbers discussionshealth insurance, car insurance, when accumulated, will allow those who are looking for the fourth grade level average of $1,200.

    • http://www./ says:

      This provides you with quick knowledge about insurancesome room to drive then there’s no reason to go with a vehicle upon commencement of litigation against the charges before paying for these car insurances are known to everybody. you’vefamily car instead of visiting different offices in various companies. Be assured that you are a few days to acknowledge clients and they will purchase something like auto insurance is onlyappropriate. Following are some things that must be moving to another state, and doing a little bit of money. Next take a chance. Once you’ve done these, the Infiniti QX56 becomesline is that PMI is certainly an advantage. Insurance liability may not be sufficient for them. Instead, buy the car insurance policy. This is an accident, the consequences of high paymentcarry responsibility. What this means fewer mark-ups between your vehicle from fire, acts of nature can cause distractions for new information. For car insurance is of course the students need lowerIf they don’t need to ask the Department of Insurance has already been on the car of significant considerations come into the spending power of the rental, but not to danger.find this out by visiting different insurance agents. I find myself in that specific month, you may be involved in a car insurance, it helps cut down on the road. asafe with their lawyer fees if you decide which one benefits of using a travel plug. A yellow fever vaccination certificate is sent to collections. You’ll also need to search thecan help you with a description of the online version of the recommendations given above on checking it yourself.

    • Estimado Senador Larraín,Le felicito por esta iniciativa. Este un tema de la mayor importancia y es reconfortante que nuestros legisladores incluyan asuntos tan delicados como esto entre sus iniciativas.Atte.,Juan López N.

    • Ces chiffres seuls ne signifient rien si on ne prends pas en compte le nombre de liens publicitaires au-dessus des résultats naturels. Prenons la requête "voyage" :- Bing propose 4 liens publicitaires- Google propose 3 liens pubCet écart de 1 lien est important sur les taux de clics des résultats naturels.

  65. Naman says:

    What is the power rating of the motor you have used for this controller? And what rating of motor I can use for the same controller if I am doing something different?

  66. Rashid says:

    hello brother….
    i’m rashid from Pakistan… i’m interested in EV conversion. I would like you to build a controller for me. or please guide me so that i’ll make for myself.

  67. Subhasis Pal says:

    Hello Sir,

    Could please provide me Bill of Material for10KW BLDC motor and its controller


    Subhasis Pal


  68. Subhasis Pal says:

    Could please provide me Bill of Material for10KW BLDC motor and its controller. I want to do it myself at home

  69. Jorge Alberto says:

    Hola Minombre es Jorge te escribo desde Colombia asme el fabor de mandarme el esquema del controlador lista de materiales te quedo agradesido

  70. Subhasis Pal says:

    Dear Tulian

    Kindly explain me the difference between sensor less control and sensored control for DLDC motor — construction wise and cost wise.


    subhasis Pal

  71. Bert says:

    My name is Bert. I’m living in Switzerland and I seriously think to develop an e-motocross bike. Currently, I’m just evaluating the work, feasibility and market. About the market, I do not really doubt because it gets increasingly difficult to find a place to practice this sport. If my project is well prepared, finalized and presented I have some investors seriously interested in helping the project.
    So to put it simply, I look for partners on some specific knowledge to move forward in this adventure. I personally have a lot of experience in the development of racing car and motorcycle ….. and I was pilot too.
    If you should be interested maybe we could have a direct and personal contact.


  72. Just domain is booked. Website is on hold. i need your help for my project. For protocol i’m using chines 1000 watts 48 volts motor and 45 amps controller.
    my email please send your mobile #. I will pay for your time. i do need your help. It is commercial project. Kind regard. sincerely Malkiat

  73. sertac says:

    dear iulian

    i am new in electronics.i tried some circuits with arduino and mc33035. they are worked but below 24v. i want to make this controller but the dc dc converter is problem for me to have. i read the commands about converter that you left.
    can i use a diode from vcc to vb of 2103 and something like 100k resistor from vs to gnd.can resistor charge boot strap cap? just an idea.if so it will be perfect for me.

    also my motor is 250watt self balance scooter motor. in my circuit with mc33035 and in some throttle levels motor makes some noise. it is like resonance.when i give full throthle noise gone again. motor is brand new. is there a common problem like that? or is it because of my driver?

    thank you.

  74. Basically, rent control means that the landlord can set the initial rent amount, but cannot
    raise the rent or is severely limited in the amount
    they can raise the rent. Its a good idea to keep a track of all the incidents your experience that involve your neighbor.
    We have listed some short apartment tips that you should use in order to make your apartment move simple.

  75. This in turn means you have covered the expenses of your SEO campaign and
    in the long-run it makes financial sense. Contrary to the speculations of many business adversaries, flash websites can definitely
    make your content more searchable. There are numerous keyword
    tools that you can find online.

  76. Andrej says:

    Julian could u send me eagle pcb documents please
    I’m building EV scooter with 1,5 kW BLDC motor and hall sensor

    thank you

  77. yokan says:

    i am already build that circuit,i have check with my oscilascope i can get max % 64 duty cycle,how can get more? i am try adjust torque,there is any way adjust current with duty cycle?

  78. Arne says:

    Why do you need those dc/dc converters (VA 1212S) in front of the mosfet drivers?

    Thanks in advance

  79. eray says:

    Hi Berca,

    I draw the schematic.I made the circuit.But certainly the motor did not run.I’m sure, Everything is the same as your circuit.Also mosfets exploded.I want urgent help from you.


    • Matthias says:

      You can sent me your schematic and I check it:

    • iulian berca says:

      The circuit is tested and good. Before any other testes, please use a current limit power supply to a few amps. In this way you will not blow any mosfet if the circuit is not connected well. Please do not put power on the power stange and check with an oscilloscope if you have the PWM signals on the mosfets gates.

  80. eray says:


    Can you send me a schematic(control and power pcb)?

    my e-mail adress:

  81. John says:

    In your schematic the brake pin is grounded. I don’t see how this motor will brake smoothly.

    Can someone please explain because I need to understand how this motor will brake.

    Thanks in advance

    • iulian berca says:

      Hello, In the datasheet you can find all information you need. If brake pin is not grounded motor will brake, by shorting all the phases together.

      • John says:

        Ok, but how can I implement a brake handle? (thumb brake)

        I’m building an e-step and I have a thumb throttle and a thumb brake.
        But I don’t see how the motor will brake smoothly if I push the brake?

        The brake handle is like a potentiometer but the brake pin can only be high or low.

        Kind regards,

  82. Emile says:


    Why don’t you use one single 3 phase mosfet gate driver to switch the mosfets instead of 3 half bridge drivers with their own dc regulator?
    It would be much simpler.

    Kind regards,


  83. hela says:


    I have a question about the floating dc supply for the mosfet drivers: +Vout = 12V

    But is -Vout -12V or 0V?

    Kind regards

  84. Arne says:

    I do have some important questions about the mosfet driving part of the controller.
    It would be awesome if somebody took a look at it to help me out.

    – From the mosfet datasheet I learn that min Vgs(th) = 3V, so the voltage differential between the gate and source must be greater than 3V in order to switch the mosfet. When the mosfet is in the off-state, Vs = 0V and V(ho) pulses between 0-12V. So when V(ho) gets a pulse and rises to 12V, the voltage differential across gate en source can be calculated (47 ohm resistor + gate resistance = 1 ohm). The voltage at the gate is only 0,25V which means the mosfet will not switch.

    – Each mosfet driver has their own high side floating supply, but if a high side mosfet is switched on, doesn’t the dc/dc converter break down? Vs goes to 28 volts and directly to the converter.

    Any response is greatly appreciated.

    • iulian berca says:

      Hello, your presumption have no foundation, neither practical or theoretical. The circuit is was replicated several times by me and every time worked fine. It is a tested and working circuit.

  85. albert a says:

    Hi Iulian,

    I was wondering if the LM317 for the floating supply for the drivers is necessary? Why don’t you use the 12V from the 7812?


    • iulian berca says:

      i made the boards being able to be used as separate boards(with other final stage). so each has his own power supply. you can use 12v from 7812 but is better to live like it.

      • albert a says:

        Thank you for the reply!

        One more question, do you have 4 caps of 470 µF parallel to the supply for voltage stabilisation?
        How do you calculate the value of the caps? I have a 36V power supply.


  86. CH says:

    Hi Iulian, can i combine the circuit with arduino?

  87. Valdemaras says:

    Hello, can you send eagle files!

    Thanks from Lithuania!

  88. Mustafa says:

    Dear Julian Berca
    Thanks about everything that you share with us.I will notice you about the bldc driver schematic.Every thing is ok but the mosfet drivers are wrong.If you look data sheet of IR2103 HIN pin is in phase but LİN is out of phase.You should use a driver whoose HİN pin is out of phase and LİN pin is in phase.I could not understand how you used this driver properly.I want to hear something about thıs situation.

  89. Mustafa says:

    Hi again
    I should have say that your updated 2015 schematic is completely proper and can work very well.I understand now how it works.I am sory about what ı have written two days ago.
    I wish you success at your new projects.

  90. Raghav Verma says:

    Hi Julian
    I want to drive a 48V 800W bldc motor. Please suggest me with an appropriate solution.

  91. Jason Cassera says:

    Hi Berca,

    I hope this message finds you well.

    I know you must be very busy, but I was wondering if my high school team may have a copy of your EagleCAD drawings for us to implement and learn.

    Thank you in advance,


  92. Ron Doctors says:

    I have just completed testing of my axial 40 kw motor.
    Efficiency at 5000 rpm is close to 96%. Need a sinewave controller to improve it a bit. Nothing available so it looks like it’s my next project.
    Thanks julian.
    Ron doctors

  93. Albert a says:


    I made 2 boards, one control board (12V) and one power board (36V).
    Now I am doing tests with an oscilloscope, but I don’t get any signals on the top and bottom drive pins. The power board is not connected.
    The voltage between pin 9 and 15 is 1.94V, so is this the reason? I grounded pin 15 and
    My fault pin is low so the led is burning.
    How can I get the PWM signals, because I do see a sawtooth wave on pin 10 but no PWM wave.


    • iulian says:

      The threshold in pin 9 is 1v anything higher will give you fault output.

      • Albert a says:

        How can I get less then 1V on the current sense pin? A bigger resistor in series?

        Also my pin 7 (Output enable) when it is in the “high” state it outputs 1.18V, but that is too low. In the datasheet it should internally be at 6.24V right?


  94. Albert a says:

    Hi Iulian,

    The MC33035 has internal high current drivers. So why exactly would you need the MOSFET gate drivers?
    The PWM voltage is already 12V so ideal for a MOSFET to switch.
    Is it because the upper switches have to be darlingtons and are expensive?


    • iulian says:

      The MC33035 has only 3 totem poles, to direct drive the mosfets. For the upper mosfets you need gate driver and DC-DC supply for each gate. otherwise you will blow up mosfets.

  95. pounal says:

    teacher the c4 and c9 capacitor what is the volt and what is jp1 jp15 i am duilding a bldc for a samsung motor and i need your help please

  96. Abrami says:


    Why are you not using p channel MOSFETs for the top signals so you don’t have to invert them?

  97. pounal says:

    hey iudian dose this controller power the ftont and back coil at the same time for maximum torque as showm in the video

  98. pounal says:

    I just want to know if this circuit have a pull push effect for maximum torque

  99. Mbark says:


    I designed and made a three phase inverter myself for 36V, but I have a lot of trouble with dead MOSFETs.
    Just now, the top MOSFET of phase A failed. What could be the reason?

    I have a reasonable heatsink attached and the current was only 5 amps, while the MOSFETs are capable of 75A.
    The gate drivers are properly controlled.


    Could it be the lack of a snubber circuit?

    Thanks in advance.

    • iulian berca says:

      The usual mistake everybody does in burning mosfets is not driving them well. You need to give them in gate square pwm signal 0-15v. Use oscilloscope to check.


    • Anonymous says:

      The mosfets will fail if
      1. The gate circuit does not provide enough drive. Or you don’t have reverse volt suppression diodes.
      2. The spikes when switching are not controlled, use high quality polypropelene caps with a resistor network.
      3. Only rarely do the mosfets fail from high currents. They are very sensitive to reverse voltages.

  100. Benjámin says:

    Hello, can you send eagle files and if it is posible all the files of the project?

  101. Mario says:

    Could you please send me a complete schematic or the newest design? It seem to be the best i found , you’re a genius !

  102. HildredX says:

    I must say you have very interesting content here. Your content should
    go viral. You need initial boost only. How to get massive
    traffic? Search for: Murgrabia’s tools go viral

  103. Rajesh says:

    Hi, I have the following questions for a very long time. Can you please clear it.
    Q1. Whatever i have read there are two kinds of brush less motors a. BLDC b. PMSM motors. They both differ in their Back Emf. One is trapezoidal and the other sinusoidal. Am I correct?
    Q2. In case if it is Trapezoidal back emf or BLDC motor then instead of the square or six step commutation where two legs are ON at any point of time, Can I still use a sinusoidal commutation where all the three legs will be active? Will there be any performance degradation?
    Q3. It is stupid question that if i drive using sinusoidal commutation will my back emf change to sinusoidal and if i drive using 6 step commutation the back emf will change to trapezoidal? Anything like that?
    Q4. Finally if i want sensor less FOC for BLDC with Trapezoidal Back emf is it possible? Because I have seen lot of application notes for Sensorless FOC for PMSM kind of motors?
    Can you please answer these questions.

  104. Hi,

    I have looked your circuit, it is well designed but i have a question about your circuit. Why you have used pull up resistors R40,R41,R42 in your circuit. Because IR2103 high side active when HIN is logic 1.

  105. JERRY P MORROW says:

    Very nice, thanks

  106. Phill says:

    Hi Lulian,

    I thankyou for such a great site and with open source info, and realize the time and effort you have gone to with documenting your different projects. I sent an email with some explanation and it might have an airfoil of interest with quadcopter. I can supply you samples if needed.

    I have been struggling with my MC 330333 project and now will change to MC…35 and follow your schematics so as to separate the power source comtrol 5 -12v with TL783 from the higher 80 -100VDC on the mosfets .

    I am very confused which is the latest version of the 3 phase control module and the mosfet drive module.
    Is the 2015 Updated Version the latest for 3p with Hall sense ?
    Is the DC 0-100% a completely different control solely for brushed DC Motors or ment to be part of the MC33035 circuit shown below?

    And all these are nearly 3 years ago

    I am way under the electronic genius level , and more a smoke & $ makes it run eventually… sorry if these are very mundane questions.

    Best regards .. Phill

  107. Tanishq Jasoria says:

    I used the same schematics as yours(except I used 19V supply directly from the battery).
    My IC is working fine but when changing hall inputs, top drive outputs change but bottom drive outputs are always low, they don’t change on changing the hall inputs.
    Can you help me out with this?

    • ron the motor man says:

      You need to check that the halls are giving correct logic to the power switches, before you power the main supply.

  108. sam says:

    can you share the code and schematics

  109. onuremre says:

    Could you send me eagle pcb documents please?
    I’m building EV car with 48v 2kW BLDC motor and hall sensor

    thank you

  110. gabriel says:

    Could you send me eagle pcb documents please?
    I’m building EV car with 48v 2kW BLDC motor and hall sensor
    my mail is:
    thank you

  111. david says:

    Thanks for your posts.
    Under Features you wrote “– Adjustable acceleration deceleration”
    Just to clarify you are talking about current limiting or current control?

    I’m also assuming that correlates to the Pin-9, Resistor R5, and External current sensor. Am I correct in thinking that?

    Thanks again

  112. Albelo says:

    como quitarle el limite de voltage a la caja electrica de las motorinas ava

  113. Yach says:

    Hi Iulian, your work very interesting , do you mind if you can send it also to me
    Thank you very much

  114. Gee says:

    I’m going to make Ebike controller with BLDC motor 350W. I have design my own board using EAGLE. Could you help me to check it the design? if there’s something wrong or need improvement with my design. Thanks

    Best regards

  115. Gee says:

    I build the ebike controller as like as your schematic. But I don’t use dc converter , I change with US1K diode. And the MOSFET , I am using STP75NF75. When I tried, No fault on led. But the BLDC don’t work / Run. Is the problem with hall effect sequence? I really hope your help. Thanks you

  116. iulian says:

    send me to my email. iu can find it at about.

  117. Gee says:

    Hello sir, thank you for answering…ok I will send you an email about my schematics. Thanks for your help

  118. Wow! Finally I got a webpage from where I be capable of truly get helpful
    facts concerning my study and knowledge.

  119. Michael says:

    Hi can i have your schemati in any eagle or something like that please

  120. mert says:

    Hi dear Julian, could you share to me please schematic and eagle files? I need 70 Volt 50 Amp. brushless motor controller, can I use your schematic? What changes should I make in the circuit?
    Thanks a lot.

  121. Patrick says:

    Hi iulian! Love your custom work. Plz send me your pcb files so I can make a hybrid EV!


  122. Arslan says:

    In the board 2 command module. The outputs of 4049 goes to ? connection?

  123. JOSH says:

    hi , what 0.1 ohm resistor stands for guys ?

  124. Atten soldering gun
    Atten hot air gun
    Atten soldering station

  125. RC airplane says:

    yes, you are right
    Hi dear Julian, could you share to me please schematic and eagle files? I need 70 Volt 50 Amp. brushless motor controller, can I use your schematic? What changes should I make in the circuit?
    Thanks a lot.

    • Hideo says:

      everything will be same, take a notice on mosfet capability you will using and reinforce the path with additional copper if you want make the board smaller but powerfull.

  126. everything will be same, take a notice on mosfet capability you will using and reinforce the path with additional copper if you want make the board smaller but powerfull.

  127. Nicolae Fenesan says:

    Iulian am si eu o intrbare,am un motor BLCD care a fost intr-o masina de spalat samsung are 36 de bobine si 12 poli are si doi senzori hall bobinele sint legate in stea si cu variatorul de turatie BSCKB1-120081 Este de la ANAHEIM AUTOMATION am obtinut o turatie de 220 RPM si eu am nevoie de 500 RPM ca sa pot sa ii f.fac ficei mele o roata de olar ,daca leg bobinele in triunghi ,o sa obtin o turatie mai mare ?Si te rog sa imi spui ce se intimpla la legarea in triunghi ,iti multumesc anticipat l

  128. sandro says:

    Hello Mr. How can I use a Hall sensing throtle instead a resistance based potentiometer? Regards from Brazil